Are you getting enough Iron?

Iron is a mineral needed by the body for the transport of oxygen to all of our cells and tissues. It is vital for growth, brain development, immunity and overall health and wellbeing.

Iron deficiency is a fairly common problem and without intervention, it is one that can lead to iron deficiency or anaemia. Common causes of iron deficiency in adults include an inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic loss of blood and a decreases ability to absorb iron. Risk of a deficiency is higher during life stages of rapid growth when iron needs increase, or when involved in vigorous exercise. Particularly, pregnant and lactating mothers, babies and toddler, menstruating women, and female athletes are at risk. Adult males require 8mg of iron per day, while adult females require 18mg.

There are two types of iron: haem and non-haem iron. These two types of iron differ in their ability to be absorbed by the body. Haem iron is derived from haemoglobin and myoglobin, and it is well absorbed and remains relatively unaffected by other foods eaten within the same meal. Haem iron can be found predominately in meat, fish or poultry. Beef and lamb are some of the best sources of iron, as they contain double the amount of iron found in pork, chicken and fish. The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend eating an iron rich diet which includes 130g of cooked beef or lamb every second day.

Non-haem iron is found in plant-based foods, and is not as well absorbed by the body when compared to haem iron. Examples of non-haem iron sources include tofu, spinach, eggs and lentils. Adding a source of Vitamin C to a meal containing a non-haem iron source will increase the amount of iron absorbed (see our previous blog post for more information!).

If you have low energy, or experience poor concentration, irritability and general low moods, you may have low iron stores. The best way to prevent iron deficiencies is to consume an iron-rich foods regularly. If you suffer from iron deficiency, your doctor may prescribe an iron supplement to assist in increasing your iron stores. Once they have returned to normal, you should be able to maintain your iron stores by consuming regular iron-rich meals. If you are concerned about your iron levels, see your GP to ask for a blood test.

  1. Hallberg L, et al. Iron requirements and bioavailability of dietary iron. Experientia Supplentum. 1980;44:223-44.
  2. Monsen ER, et al. Iron nutrition and absorption: dietary factors which impact iron bioavailability. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1988 Jul;88(7):786-90.
  3. Morris ER, et al. An overview of current information on bioavailability of dietary iron to humans. Federation Proceedings. 1983 Apr;42(6):1716-20.
  4. Bermejo F, Garcia-Lopez S. A guide to diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in digestive diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2009 Oct 7;15(37):4638-4643.
  5. Lynch SR, et al. Interaction of Vitamin C and iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1980;355:32-44.
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Setting Realistic Health Goals

For most of us, making a change can be incredibly challenging when we don’t know where to start. It can be the same when it comes to our health. How often have you said ‘I need to do more exercise’ or ‘I need to eat better’? Saying this out loud indicates that you are contemplating making a change; however, these statements are too broad and usually nothing ever changes as a result.

In order to put words into action, we need to start thinking about HOW to exercise more or HOW we can start to eat better.

Setting exercise goals

Ask yourself what you like to do. Sometimes something as simple as a walk is a good start or perhaps start putting that gym membership to good use (let’s face it, we all have one but never use it enough). If you decide that you will go for a walk, set the days and time of day. This way you are more likely to make it happen.

Setting diet goals

Similar rules apply to dietary changes. Think about your setbacks. Is it portions sizes, after dinner snacking, not enough water?

Once you identify what you need to change, put a plan in place to make it happen. Start working on one setback and continue to add to it as time goes on. One change might seem like nothing, but this way it does not seem too daunting and you are less likely to throw in the towel.

Ensure goals are realistic for you. Do not compare yourself to others and what they are doing. Most importantly all changes need to fit into your lifestyle. When making a change ask yourself: ‘Can I keep this up in the long term?’ If the answer is no, the goal needs to be amended to suit you and your lifestyle.

For further guidance, come see one of our PPN dietitians to help guide you through your lifestyle change!

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Which probiotic is right for me?

Our gut microbiome is a collection of bacteria that lives in the digestive tract. A healthy balance of gut bacteria is crucial our health and well-being. If an imbalance is present, individuals can be more susceptible to illness and disease. In order to achieve a healthy gut, there needs to be diversity in the types of gut microbes present.

Today, more and more people are deciding to take probiotics in an attempt to improve their gut microbiome, manage lower gastrointestinal symptoms and optimise overall health and well-being. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. They can be consumed in different forms such as capsules, sachets, drinks and fermented foods including sauerkraut, kefir and yoghurts.

The issue is, there are so many different types of probiotics to choose from. So what should we be looking for?

When it comes to probiotics, there are many factors determining the response a person will have to treatment. These include probiotic strain(s), dose and mode of administration (capsules, food and sachets), the health status of the person, their diet and medications.

Current research is looking into the role of specific probiotics in managing particular lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating/distension and diarrhoea-predominant IBS. If you suffer from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), it’s recommended you speak with your gastroenterologist or dietitian to determine if a specific strain(s) would be better suited to improving your gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life.

Here are three handy tips to remember when deciding on a probiotic:

  1. VARIETY: Looks for a broad spectrum probiotic that has >10 different strains of microorganisms
  2. DOSE: Look for the Colony Forming Units (CFUs) – this will tell you how much bacteria you are receiving in each dose. Most doses will range from 1 million to 100 billion. It is always better to go for higher CFUs as not all bacteria survive when travelling through the gastrointestinal tract.
  3. FREQUENCY: Probiotics must be taken on a regular basis for a reasonable period of time (at least one month). Regular consumption is important because probiotic strains are transient and will generally be washed out within days.
  1. Hungin AP, Mulligan C, Pot B, Whorwell P, Agréus L, Fracasso P, et al. Systematic review: probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical practice — an evidence-based international guide. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Oct;38(8):864-86
  2. FAO/WHO Working Group. Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO working group on drafting guidelines from the evaluation of probiotics in food. London, Ontario, Canada 2001.
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Nutrient absorption… How does it work?

Our bodies require a range of nutrients for proper growth and development, some in large quantities and others in only small amounts. However, not all nutrients react within our body in the same way, or are absorbed to the same extent. In fact, different nutrients can be quite unique in the way our body processes them.

Nutrients in the form of supplements are absorbed differently to the nutrients found naturally in food. Some nutrients interact with one another, interfering with or enhancing their ability to be absorbed by the body. Food products can also be fortified with particular nutrients during production to enhance nutrient content. Other factors such as stress and alcohol consumption can also have an impact on our absorption. We can use some of this knowledge to our advantage to make the most of our meals by pairing certain foods together, or avoiding foods which may inhibit absorption of a particular meal. Here are a few examples:


Iron absorption is improved by the presence of ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. However, iron absorption is inhibited by calcium, when consumed simultaneously. Tannins and phytates are also inhibitors of iron absorption, so be sure to reduce the intake of tea and coffee around the time of consuming an iron-rich meal, particularly from a plant-based iron source. To boost your iron absorption, pair iron-rich meat and legumes with Vitamin C containing foods such as capsicum, oranges, broccoli and chilli.


Calcium is absorbed primarily in the small intestine. When large amounts are consumed, calcium can pass through the lining of the small intestine on its own; however, when consumed in small amounts, calcium’s absorption is improved with the presence of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is mostly absorbed by sun exposure to the skin; however, the vitamin can also be found in some seafood such as salmon and tuna, eggs and fortified dairy products such as soy milk.

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E and K are ‘fat-soluble’ vitamins, which means they need fats to be absorbed efficiently. Regularly include a source of healthy unsaturated fat into your meals, including oily fish, avocado, olive or olive oils, nuts and seeds. This can be done by using olive oil-based dressings, topping your salads or toast with avocado and seeds, or snacking on nuts.

If you experience changes in your energy levels, bowel habits, skin integrity or hair and nails, check in with your GP to find out if you have any nutrient deficiencies. Our accredited practising dietitians can also assist you in achieving a well balanced diet and reduce your risk of nutritional deficiencies.

  1. Gibson RS, Peras L, Hotz C. Improving the Bioavailability of Nutrients in Plant Foods at the Household Level. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2006 May;65(2):160-8.
  2. Pressman P, Clements RA, Hayes AW. Bioavailability of micronutrients obtained from supplements and food. Toxicology Research and Application. 2017; 1:1-7.
  3. Hallberg L, et al. The role of Vitamin C in Iron Absorption. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 1989; 30:103-8.
  4. Zijp IM, et al. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2000 Sep;40(5):371-98.
  5. Lynch SR, Cook JD. Interaction of Vitamin C and Iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1980;355: 32-44.
  6. Loonerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption—mechanisms and public health relevance. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):293-9.
  7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) & World Health Organization (WHO) (2010). Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper. 2010;91:1-166.
  8. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Fat Soluble Vitamins. 1989; pp. 78-97.
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Your Low FODMAP Shopping List

Are you following a low FODMAP diet or know somebody that is?

Trialling a low FODMAP diet for two to six weeks can be a helpful way to control unpleasant gastrointestinal symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and identify potential trigger foods; however, it can also be quite overwhelming and confusing, especially when it comes to supermarket shopping.

To make things easier for you, our PPN dietitians have compiled a low fodmap shopping list to save you time and worry next time you are at the supermarket.

Following this guide will ensure you have a trolley full of nutritious ingredients and products that will help to keep those tummy troubles at bay whilst helping you to achieve a balanced and well-rounded diet. Just click on the category below to find out more.

Bakers Delight LowFODTM  Bread, Spelt Bread, Gluten-free Bread, Sourdough Bread, Corn Tortilla’s, Gluten-Free Corn Flakes, Quinoa, Rice (Brown, White, Red, Black), Oats, Arrowroot or Buckwheat flour, Corn Flour, Gluten-Free Flour, Teff Flour, Tapioca Starch, Oat Bran, Rice Bran, Millet Kernals, Rice/Vermicelli Noodles, Chickpea Pasta, Nutritional Yeast, Gluten-Free Pasta, Pearl Barley, Polenta, Wonton Wrappers
Alfalfa Sprouts, Artichoke Hearts, Rocket, Eggplant, Bamboo shoots, Bean Sprouts, Red Capsicum, Bok Choy, Whole Broccoli (Stalk + Head), Cabbage (Common & Red), Wombok, Collard Greens, Cucumber, Fennel Leaves, Kale, Lettuce, Oyster Mushrooms, Parsnip, Sweet Potato, Potato, Radish, Silverbeet, Squash, Spinach, Tomatoes, Turnip, Witlof, ½ cup Zucchini, Canned Corn, Edamame, Gherkins (in vinegar), Olives, Japanese Pumpkin
Unripe Bananas, Cantaloupe, Cumquats, Dragon Fruit, Red Grapes, Guava, Kiwi Fruit, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Mangosteen, Orange, Passionfruit, Paw Paw, Pineapple, Rhubarb, Starfruit (Jackfruit), Strawberries, Dried Coconut
Most cheeses, Cream, Lactose-free Milk, Lactose-free Yoghurt, Almond Milk (Sanitarium So Good), Soy Milk (made from Soy Protein – Sanitarium So Good), Hemp Milk, Macadamia Milk, Rice Milk, Coconut Yoghurt
Chestnuts, flax/linseeds, LSA Mix, Macadamia’s, Brazil Nuts, Peanuts, Pecans, Pine-nuts, Chia seeds (black and white), Hemp seeds, Sunflower seeds, Walnuts, Pumpkin Seeds, Sesame Seeds, Canned Lentils (1/2 cup), Mung Beans, Quorn Mince, Tempeh, Tofu (firm or plain)
Coffee (made with Low FODMAP dairy alternatives), Brown Rice Protein, Cacao Powder, Creamer Powder, Pea Protein, Spirulina, Wheatgrass, Kvass, Cranberry Juice, Black Tea, Dandelion Tea, Green Tea, Peppermint Tea, Rooibos Tea
Beer, Gin, Vodka, Whiskey, Red Wine, Sparkling Wine, Sweet Wine, White Wine, Dry Wine
Bacon, Beef, Chicken, Eggs, Fish, Kangaroo, Lamb, Pork, Prawns, Salmon, Sardines, Tuna (canned or fresh)
Butter, Diary Blend, Margarine, Mayonnaise, Avocado Oil, Canola Oil, Coconut Oil, Garlic-infused Oil, Olive Oil, Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Peanut Oil, Rice Bran Oil, Sesame Oil, Sunflower Oil, Vegetable Oil
Wasabi Paste, Chives, Basil, Bay Leaves, Coriander, Curry Leaves, Dill, Lemongrass, Mint, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, Tarragon, Thyme, Chilli, Watercress, Mustard, Capers, BBQ sauce, Fish Sauce, Horseradish, Miso Pasta, Oyster Sauce, Soy Sauce, Sweet & Sour Sauce, Tamarind Pasta, Tomato Pasta, Tomato Sauce, Apple Cider Vinegar, Red Wine Vinegar, Rice Wine Vinegar, Worcestershire Sauce, All Spice, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Cloves, Cumin, Curry Powder, Fennel Seeds, Five Spice, Nutmeg, Mustard Seeds, Paprika, Pepper, Saffron, Star Anise, Turmeric, Vanilla Bean.
Almond Butter, Strawberry Jam, Peanut Butter, Vegemite.
Oatcake Biscuits, Corn Chips, Plain Potato Crisps Cruskits, Popcorn, Pretzels, Rice Cakes, Rice Crackers, Rusk’s, Dark Chocolate, Instant Jelly, Stevia, Sugar, Maple Syrup, Rice Malt Syrup

For further information (and if you have a smart phone of course), we recommend downloading the Monash FODMAP App for an on-hand referral tool while out and about!

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How to read a nutrition label

Trust me, you’re not the only one that finds going to the supermarket tricky!

With the abundance of products on the market, trying to decipher the healthier options can be extremely confusing.

Being a dietitian, I could spend hours in the supermarket reading labels, but I appreciate that not everybody wants to spend long periods of time trying to comprehend what each product contains, how to use them and whether they are healthy or not.

To make it easier for you, I have put together a label reading guide with some tips and tricks to hopefully make your next shopping experience less stressful and more efficient!

The Nutrition Information Panel (NIP)

Looks like: A table, consisting of 3 columns.
Use: Tells us the amounts of nutrients in the product per serve and per 100g.
Location: Commonly the back or side, but may be found on the bottom of the product.

What you’ll find:

Number of serves: How many serves are in that product.
Serving size: The amount of grams in each serve.
Per serve column: The amount of energy and specific nutrients in each serve.
Per 100g column: The amount of energy and specific nutrients per 100g. Useful to use when comparing different products within similar foods groups to determine which is a healthier option.
Energy: The amount of calories/kilojoules in the food. 1 calorie = 4.2kJ.
Total fat: Choose foods with less than 10g of fat per 100g. For milk, yoghurt and ice-cream, choose foods with less than 2g of fat per 100g, and for cheese, choose options with less than 15g of fat per 100g.
Saturated fat: (The lower the better) Generally choose foods with less than 3g per 100g.
Sugar: Aim for less than 15g per 100g.
Fibre: Not all labels include fibre; however, if choosing breads and cereals, aim for more than 3g per serve.
Sodium: Aim for less than 400mg per 100g; however, less than 120mg per 100g is best.

The Ingredients List

Looks like: A small list of ingredients.
Use: Informs us about what is in the product.
Location: Generally under the NIP.

Ingredients are listed in order of weight. For example, the first ingredient listed is what majority of that product consists of.

Tip: Aim to avoid products in which saturated fat, salt or sugar are listed in the first three ingredients. Do not be fooled by alternative names for fat, salt or sugar. Companies and marketers can be very tricky and perceive you into thinking a product is healthier than it actually is!

The Health Star Rating (HSR)

Looks like: 5 Stars in a dome.
Use: To provide at a glance, convenient and readily understood ratings on the healthiness of a particular product. The more full stars = the more nutritious the product. Based on the energy, fat, sugar and salt in foods.
Location: Front of pack.

Pros of the HSR:

– Helps you make more positive choices about the foods you choose to buy.
– An easy way to compare products in similar food groups to determine which is best.

Cons of the HSR:

– Not a mandatory initiative, therefore not all products will have it. If a company is aware their star will be low, they will choose not to include it.
– Does not help you identify other key nutritional information such as the vitamin and mineral content, fibre content or the glycaemic index of the food.

We hope this guide has been useful for you, and comes in handy when you are next at the supermarket! For further information on label reading, consult with one of our PPN dietitians.

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A day of eating on the Low FODMAP Diet

A lot of people are trying a low FODMAP diet to help alleviate unpleasant symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); however, because of its restrictive nature, it can be difficult to achieve nutritional adequacy, balance and variety in the diet.

Due to these common problems, we have formulated a nutritionally-balanced plan inclusive of low FODMAP meals and snack ideas, to help make it easier for you to choose foods throughout the day, without compromising your nutritional status and overall health and wellbeing.

1) Omelette: 2 eggs, a dash of milk, tasty cheese, spinach leaves and capsicum
2) Porridge: ¼ cup oats, ½ lactose free or fortified soy milk, ½ tsp cinnamon and ½ cup mixed berries
3) Fruit Smoothie: 1 cup of lactose free or fortified soy milk, ½ kiwi fruit, ¼ banana, a few mixed berries and 1 tbsp lemon juice
Serve with: Coffee with lactose free or fortified soy milk, or peppermint tea

Morning Tea/Afternoon Tea:
1) Piece of low FODMAP fruit: kiwi, under-ripe banana, berries, orange, passionfruit or pineapple
2) Nuts: 10 almonds, or 10 cashews, or 20 macadamias, or 32 peanuts, or 10 walnut halves
3) Small tub of lactose-free yoghurt
4) Boiled egg
5) Small tin of tuna

1) Rice paper rolls: made with chicken, carrots, coriander, cucumber and capsicum
2) Salad sandwich: 2 slices of spelt sourdough with cheddar cheese, tomato, mustard and rocket
3) Frittata: eggs + LoFo veggies of your choice (eggplant, carrots, small amount of zucchini, cherry tomatoes, spinach), add parmesan cheese, dash of lactose-free milk and salt & pepper to serve
4) Quinoa salad: quinoa, capsicum, Japanese pumpkin, sweet potato, zucchini, grilled chicken.

1) Baked salmon: with a salad made from cucumber, low fat feta, capsicum, spinach, olive oil and lemon
2) Spaghetti Bolognaise made with buckwheat pasta (add extra LoFo veg into a sauce made from minced meat and canned tomatoes)
3) Stir fry beef: lean beef mixed with oyster sauce, soy sauce and sesame oil (ensure sauces are gluten free), combined with diced carrots, zucchini, red capsicum, baby spinach, coriander and rice or rice noodles

1) Lactose-free yoghurt with mixed berries and 20g serve of nuts
2) Two slices of hard tasty cheese on a rice crackers
3) Two small squares of dark chocolate

For further information on how to improve the nutritional adequacy of your diet while following a low FODMAP diet, please contact one of our PPN dietitians.

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How to stop those sugar cravings

It is not uncommon to hear people complaining about their uncontrollable sugar cravings and insatiable appetite. Today’s food supply is dominated by those that are high in carbohydrates and refined sugars, which tend to be cheap, readily available and make us feel happy and full… initially!

Although sugar (glucose) is our bodies’ preferred fuel source, it acts like a drug. The more we eat, the more we crave. Most people consume way more sugar than what they actually need, particularly as our lives become more sedentary.

If you’ve been struggling and want to take the control back, you will likely need to reassess your food choices and behaviours. Weaning your body off these high refined sugar foods is one of the most effective ways to do so.  However, like any kind of ‘detox’, you may find it difficult at first.

If you know you currently consume too many sweets, cakes, biscuits and sugary drinks, you may need to allow yourself a couple of weeks to adjust. During this time, it’s helpful to be proactive, seek professional advice and map out a plan of attack.

When we eat sugar, this stimulates an insulin response that causes a rise in our blood sugar levels. This initial spike in blood sugar gives us quick energy boost and sense of happiness… and who doesn’t love that?! However, with every rapid rise comes a dramatic fall and we are left feeling just as hungry as we did initially, craving that same sense of satisfaction.

In order to prevent peaks and troughs in your blood sugar levels, it may help to adopt a slightly lower carbohydrate intake, particularly from simple sugars. This includes reducing intake of foods and drinks including biscuits, cakes, lollies, soft drink, sports drinks, energy drinks, ice-cream, chocolate, cordials (to name but a few).

When choosing carbohydrate foods, reach for low GI (glycaemic index) sources where possible as this will help slow digestion, prevent a rapid rise in blood sugar levels and create a greater sense of fullness for longer. Stick to fresh foods such as wholegrains, high fibre breads and cereals, legumes and lentils, fresh fruit, vegetables and low fat dairy products.

If you can adopt this way of eating as a long term lifestyle approach, you will likely notice a reduction in your sugar cravings, better weight management and improved appetite control throughout the day!

If this sounds like you, come in and see one of our experienced PPN dietitians to help you take back  control of your cravings.

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Hydration: How much fluid/water should you drink in a day?

We always get told that we need to drink more water, but how much should we really be having each day? Depending on who you talk to, you will probably get a different answer. It may even differ as widely as 2-4L per day.

Water accounts for 50-80% of body weight depending on lean body mass. It is an essential nutrient required for digestion, absorption, elimination of waste products as well as regulating body temperature.

Since everybody is different, there is no single level of water intake that would ensure adequate hydration and optimal health. When talking about hydration, we estimate total fluid intake and not just water alone.

To calculate fluid, aim for 35-45ml/kg/weight. For example, a person who weighs 60kg would need between 2.1-2.7L fluid per day. This fluid is not just water – any milk, coffee, tea, flavoured drinks, etc, all fall under this category.

Water will always be a better source of hydration as it contains no calories. Generally, if we aim for half of our total fluid intake per day to come from water the rest of our fluids can be made up with other drinks (of course, limiting sugar sweetened beverages where possible).

Use your judgement on how much water/hydration you may need depending on level of activity/sweat loss and weather conditions in order to prevent dehydration.

Australian Government: National Health Medical Research Council. 2014. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand: Water <>
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How to stay on track with your goals over Christmas

The ‘silly season’ is upon us and while it can be tricky to stick to your health-related goals during this time, if you make a plan and stick to it (as well as enjoy yourself), then you can enter the new year without suffering too much damage.

Set yourself realistic goals

If you have a current weight-loss goal, rather than pressuring yourself to meet it before Christmas so you can ‘pig out’ on Christmas day, why not extend the goal until the middle of January and enjoy Christmas with a balanced approach. Christmas is a time of year that always revolves around food, drink and family, so enjoying these things for what they are – without any guilt – will make this time of year stress and guilt free.

Aim for balance

If your normal Christmas style is to overeat and drink at Christmas lunch and then have an afternoon siesta, take a different approach this year. Rather than grazing, grab yourself a plate and portion out a small amount of each dish that you wish to eat, eat it slowly and stick to that one plate. Allow some room for some Christmas pudding as well! By taking this approach, you’ll not only feel better for it mentally and physically, you also will have enjoyed the food you’re eating.

Stay hydrated

Hydration is really important, especially if mother nature throws us a 30°C+ day on 25 December. If you are drinking alcohol, alternate each alcoholic beverage with a glass of water or mineral water to not only keep you hydrated, but also to space out the alcoholic drinks.

Portion control

Christmas parties in the lead up to Christmas can often be as extravagant as the day itself. If this is the case, make sure that the portion you eat at these parties, be it lunch or dinner, are similar to those you would normally have at these times of days. And if you do happen to over eat, don’t then skip a meal to compensate as this does no favours to your metabolism. Instead, have a light meal. Alternatively, if you know you’re having a big dinner, don’t skip lunch as you’ll end up at the dinner ravenous, leading to overeating.

Stay active

Even though they say you can’t ‘out exercise’ a bad diet, staying active is key to sticking to your goals over the Christmas period. With more daylight and warmer weather, there’s much more time in the day to fit in an exercise session. With the busy-ness that December brings, it’s easier to get up half an hour earlier and fit in a quick walk. This way, it’s done for the day and there are no excuses after work.

If you’re unsure about how to stay on track this holiday season, come and see one of our PPN dietitians to help you to achieve your goals.

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